What is CBD, CBC, CBG & More

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    CBD (Cannabidiol)

    CBD stands for cannabidiol, which is a naturally occurring chemical compound found in the cannabis sativa plant, also known as the marijuana plant.

    Cannabis sativa has two primary species, hemp and marijuana. Both contain CBD, but there’s a much higher percentage in hemp, which also has very low (less than 0.3%) levels of THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) compared to marijuana.

    CBD is gaining momentum in the health and wellness world, with some scientific studies confirming it may ease symptoms of ailments like chronic pain and anxiety. This naturally occurring substance is now used in products like oils and edibles to impart a feeling of relaxation and calmness.

    Cannabidiol can be categorized as a cosmetic product only if it contains less than 0.3% THC. There are also some dietary supplements on the market that contain cannabidiol. It is worth noting that the amount contained in these products is not always reported accurately on the product label.

    Some studies show that CBD has anti-cancer properties, however, more research is required to confirm its efficacy and safety in this regard.

    CBC (Cannabichromene)

    Cannabichromene (CBC) is prevalent in tropical varieties of cannabis and is the second most common type of cannabinoid after THC. Regardless of where it is grown, all cannabis plants are found to have at least one percent of CBC. It was isolated for the first time around 50 years ago.

    The effects of cannabichromene are regulated by non-cannabinoid receptor interactivities. Like CBD, cannabichromene doesn’t interact with the CB1 receptors in the brain, meaning that it doesn’t have any psychoactive properties. On the other hand, CBC is found to interact with CB2 receptors in the tumor cells, causing surface antigens to be synthesized.

    Cannabichromene is popular for relieving pain, reducing inflammation, inhibiting inflammation, inhibiting cell growth in tumor and cancer cells, and for promoting bone development. Many researchers believe CBC is the most efficient anti-cancerous cannabinoid. Additionally, CBC is the only phytocannabinoid that is known to stimulate brain cell growth. This has now sparked the research into the possibility of using CBC to treat Alzheimer’s Disease. Many researchers also believe that CBC can help patients fighting depression. This is because, when coupled with CBD and THC, cannabichromene seems to have a very positive impact on a person’s mood.

    CBCA (Cannabichromenic Acid)

    Cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) is considered one of the major cannabinoids. It exists in almost all cannabis strains, but it’s most common in tropical strains. Cannabichromenic acid is the precursor of the major cannabinoid known as cannabichromene.

    The main purpose of this acid precursor is to protect growing plants from diseases while also regulating the development process. We know that the major difference between CBCA and similar cannabinoids is that CBCA is being synthesized at a constant rate in the stalkless trichomes. Additionally, it more closely resembles water droplets, as opposed to the trichomes that usually look like transparent mushrooms.

    Like the other precursors, such as THCA and CBDA, this cannabichromenic acid is biosynthetically produced from another cannabinoid acid called cannabigerolic acid. This reaction is regulated by an enzyme called cannabichromenic acid synthase.

    Unfortunately, the medical benefits of cannabichromenic acid have not been studied very extensively. However, like CBC, this precursor acid has been found to contain powerful anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. There is also some degree of antifungal properties in CBCA.

    As mentioned above, CBCA is produced and accumulated in the stalkless trichomes of the young leaves of cannabis. As such, we can produce CBC from CBCA upon heating. This reaction is called decarboxylation, and it involves the loss of CO2 from the primary chain of the CBCA molecule.

    CBCVA (Cannabichromevarinic Acid)

    One of over 100 other cannabinoids, cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA) is a very strong compound. CBCVA is known to target receptors in the human body to help regulate some of our body’s necessary functions, including appetite, sleep cycles, mood, as well as movements. The molecular structure of CBCVA is C20H26O4, and its molecular weight is 330.424g/mol. Cannabichromevarini is a safe substance which does not have any psychoactive properties.

    Just like many other CBD compounds, cannabichromevarinic acid has not been researched enough for us to fully understand its effects on the human body. Currently, the only way to study CBCVA is to look at its association with our body’s endocannabinoid system. They work like a lock and key in the form of cannabinoid receptors and cannabinoids. Whenever these receptors are unlocked, there are changes in the functionality of cells, inducing various effects on the body. Additionally, CBCVA doesn’t bond well with CB1 receptors in our brains, so it does not have any psychoactive effects.

    CBCVA is a(n):

    • Anti-convulsant
    • Anti-inflammatory
    • Anti-oxidant
    • Anti-psychotic
    • Immunomodulatory
    • Neuroprotective

    CBDA (Cannabidiolic Acid)

    Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is among the several compounds synthesized by cannabis. Found in larger amounts in live CBD variety plants, it gets converted into cannabidiol either over time when it is subjected to heat. This conversion is the result of decarboxylation, which occurs by subjecting the cannabis plant to heat or sunlight. Alternatively, we can call cannabidiolic acid the predecessor, or raw form of, cannabidiol

    Nowadays, we can find cannabidiolic acid in capsules, topicals, and tinctures. It’s common to juice raw cannabis to get cannabidiolic acid.

    Most cannabinoids bind with the CB1/CB2 receptors of the brain directly, but CBDA doesn’t. Instead, it binds with the endocannabinoid system by obstructing the COX-2 enzymes that are linked to inflammation or infection. Thus, by impeding COX-2, Cannabidiolic acid can alleviate inflammation and related pain.

    Researchers have found that Cannabidiolic acid affects the levels of serotonin, a chemical released by nerve cells to help with cell signaling, in rodents. Research has also demonstrated that Cannabidiolic acid can affect 5-HT serotonin-producing receptors in our body, which means that Cannabidiolic acid could be used to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and/or vomiting.

    CBDV (Cannabidivarin)

    Cannabidivarin (CBDV) is a non-psychoactive compound present in cannabis, and it was isolated for the first time in 1969. CBDV is similar to cannabidiol in terms of its structure, and because it doesn’t cause the kind of euphoric highs induced by THC.

    Research has shown that CBDV occurs mostly in cannabis Indica plants that are sourced from African and Asian continents, as well as in strains that are naturally lower in THC. Usually, cannabis strains with higher amounts of CBD also contain higher amounts of Cannabidivarin.

    Most of the research conducted on Cannabidivarin is centered around its impact on seizures. A pharmaceutical company, GW Pharmaceuticals, is developing a CBDV-based drug to decrease/prevent epileptic, as well as other types of, seizures. Their research shows that CBDV impacts the neurochemical passage of the capsaicin receptors that are involved in the onset and progression of many forms of epilepsy. Cannabidivarin is also a promising treatment in neurobehavioral problems such as Rett Syndrome, memory defects, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Autism, and anti-nausea.

    CBDVA (Cannabidivarinic Acid)

    Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA) is one of the cannabinoids in cannabis. CBDVA may be referred to as the acid precursor of cannabidivarin (CBCV). Like several other cannabinoids, cannabidivarinic acid is non-psychoactive, which means that it won’t make the consumer feel high. The chemical formula of cannabidivarinic acid is C20H26O4, and the Molecular Weight is 330.41804 g/mol.

    According to researchers, CBDVA might have anti-inflammatory properties that can help alleviate pain, swelling due to an injury, chronic pain, and so on. CBDVA research is minimal compared to that of CBD, Delta-8-THC, and Delta-9-THC. As far as we know we know, there are over 100 cannabinoids that are being investigated and evaluated by various medical researchers. We can expect to learn more about their characteristics and medical uses in the coming years.

    CBG (Cannabigerol)

    CBG is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in low levels in cannabis plants. It’s an essential compound that acts as a precursor to many other cannabinoids. Since enzymatic activities convert it into other compounds, it remains as CBG in very low levels around 1%.

    A lot of research has been done to learn how to extract higher levels of CBG from cannabis plants. Optimizing the extraction time and flowering cycle are among the key methods. Additionally, some cultivators try to cut cannabis plants in their budding phase to get a higher yield of CBGA, which can be manually converted back to CBG. Since this process involves a lot of research, experiments, and trial and error, CBG is commonly referred to as “the Rolls Royce of cannabinoids.”

    Due to its non-psychoactive nature, CBG can be used:

    • As an analgesic
    • To reduce intraocular pressure, or Glaucoma
    • As an antidepressant
    • As an anti-cancer agent
    • As a tumor inhibitor
    • To cure colorectal cancer
    • As an antibacterial agent
    • To treat skin infections
    • To inhibit muscle contractions
    • To boost anandamide and regulate mood
    • To act as a potential neuroprotectant

    CBGA (Cannabigerolic Acid)

    CBGA is produced in the trichomes of cannabis plants. It performs a crucial protection function by triggering the targeted plant cell necrosis as a step towards natural pruning. This allows the plant to use more energy for the flowering process.

    CBGA is a precursor compound of the cannabis flower, which is evidenced by the fact that it helps initiate a series of reactions that produce three important cannabinoids. They are CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), CBCA (cannabichromenic acid), and THCA. These cannabinoids are eventually converted into CBD, CBC, and THC, respectively, through light exposure. Japanese researchers were the first to conclude that CBGA was the original precursor to CBG.

    CBGA may be used to treat:

    • Cardiovascular Disease: It inhibits the enzyme aldose reductase, which combats internal complications that cause cardiovascular disease. Synthetic inhibitors are slowly being replaced by CBGA in the medical industry
    • Metabolic Disorders: CBGA activates PPAR receptors, which regulates metabolism, stimulates lipid metabolism, and reduces excess lipid accumulation
    • Colon Cancer: It kills colon cancer cells, arrests the cancer cell cycle, and prevents the proliferation of polyps that cause carcinomas

    CBGVA (Cannabigerovarinic Acid)

    CBGVA is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid compound found in cannabis plants. It helps to further synthesize other cannabinoids like THCVA, CBDVA, and CBCVA.

    Research studies show that CBGVA has anti-inflammatory and medicinal characteristics that help to:

    • Treat arthritis
    • Relax tight muscles
    • Reduce anxiety
    • Kill cancer cells
    • Hinder tumor growth
    • Control tremors caused by Parkinson’s Disease
    • Stimulate appetite
    • Stop nausea and vomiting
    • Relieve PTSD symptoms

    CBN (Cannabinol)

    CBN, commonly confused with CBD, is a psychoactive cannabinoid that is produced through the degradation of THC, and cannot be obtained through the natural synthesis of cannabis plants. It results only from improper storage of THC, which degrades upon exposure to sunlight. In other words, if a cannabis plant is untouched for years, its THC will likely get converted into CBN.

    CBN exists in very low levels in a newly grown cannabis plant. As a result, cultivators who aim to extract CBN rich compounds may grow their plants beyond the usual cultivation period.

    Studies show that 5mg of CBN is equivalent to a 10mg dose of diazepam. It helps with pain relief and acts as a sleeping aid that is not likely to make the user addicted. CBN functions in both the CB1 and CB2 receptors of the brain, but with a higher affinity towards CB2 receptors than CB1 receptors.

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